Thursday, January 23, 2020

Relationship between Prospero, Caliban and Ariel in The Tempest Essay

Relationship between Prospero, Caliban and Ariel in The Tempest   Ã‚   Shakespeare’s play, The Tempest is set on a mysterious island surrounded by the ocean. Here the magician Prospero is ruler of the isle with his two servants Caliban and Ariel.   Caliban is the abrasive, foul-mouthed son of the evil witch Sycorax. When Prospero was shipwrecked on the island Prospero treated him kindly but their relationship changed when Caliban tried to rape Prospero's daughter, Miranda. Caliban then became Prospero's unwilling servant. Caliban serves his master out of fear Prospero's wrath. Prospero's other servant Ariel is a graceful spirit who has courtesy and charm. Ariel has put her services at Prospero's disposal out of gratitude for his kind actions towards her. Prospero saved Ariel from the confinement of Sycorax who held her prisoner. Prospero treats his two servants in very different ways as their behavior and attitudes towards him are contrasting. From this, the question arises why he treats his equally hard-working servants in different ways and if he is wise in his actions. Prospero treats Caliban in a very strict, even ruthless manner insulting him, 'Thou poisonous slave, got by the devil himself' 1/2/319 and threatening him with harsh punishments that he can inflict by his powerful magic, '...tonight thou shalt have cramps... Thou shalt be pinched... each pinch more stinging Than bees made 'em. ' 1/2/325 Prospero appears to be a ruthless tyrant that strikes fear into Caliban to make him work but further on in the text we learn that this is not the case. Caliban's foul-mouthed insults, '...blister you all over.' 1/2/324 portray his degraded, brutish nature. In Act 1 Scene 2 Caliban complains of how Prospero used h... ...te therefore becoming impractical and lacking in common sense. Shakespeare tries to show in the form of the wise Prospero, the balance of the two sides, the baser and the nobler. If you let one side dominate your personality you lose sight of your own individual person and you lose the balance.    Woks Cited and Consulted Cahn, Victor L. Shakespeare, The Playwright Praeger Publishers. Westport CT. 1996 Charney, Maurice. "Bad" Shakespeare Associated Univeristy Press. London, England. 1996 Howe, James. A Buddhist's Shakespeare Associated University Press. Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. 1994 Hylton, Jeremy. Complete Works of WilliamShakespeare, Oct 4, 1999. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Kathman, Dave. Dating The Tempest Personal site   

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Ernst Von Mansfeld Thirty Years

Thirty Years' War: Ernst von Mansfeld Ernst von Mansfeld was a German military commander in the Thirty Years War. Although he fought for the Protestant cause, Mansfeld was a Roman Catholic. He was considered one of the most dangerous opponent of the Catholic League. He was born in 1580 as the illegitimate son of Peter Ernst I von Mansfeld-Vorderort and Dorothea von Solms- Lich. In 1594 he served under Archduke Leopold. Then, in 1610 he Joined Frederick V and the Protestant Union. At the age 36 he led his first regiment of 2000 men.He fought for the Protestant Union until he died from illness in November, 1626. In the Bohemian Phase of the Thirty Years' War Mansfeld led an army of 2000 men, raised by the Duke of Savoy, to aid the Bohemian rebels. He successfully siege the Bohemian city of Pilsen in 1618. Mansfeld was defeated in the Battle of Sablat after being inactive for a while. At the Battle of White Mountain Masfeld and his forces were defeated, and in shortly after forced to su rrender Pilsen to the Catholics. Toward the end of the Bohemian Phase King Frederick V selected Mansfeld to lead is Bohemian troops.Following this he undertook Frederick's position in Upper Palatinate. He then moved into Rhenish Palatinate. This allowed Mansfeld to successfully defend against Johann Tserclaes, the Count of Tillys attempt at overtaking Bohemian rebel regiments. He also was defeated by Tilly twice. Mansfeld's troops were very destructive, not only to the lands of his enemy, but to the lands he was supposed to defend. During the Palatine Phase of the Thirty Years' War Mansfeld raised another of Frederick Vs armies in an effort to recover Palastine.The effort was a failure, because he was once again defeated by Tilly. Then Mansfeld was given an army of 12,000 men by James I of England. These troops were sent into the Dutch city of Breda as an attempt of relief for the Siege of Breda, but the troops were not permitted set foot on land, and Breda fell in 1625. Mansfeld le d the remainder of his army to Dutch lands, where they were once again defeated by Habsburg forces. Mansfeld continued to fght. He led his forces to Bergen-op-Zoom, a Dutch city seiged by the Spainish in 1622. This led to the relief of the city.Mansfeld spent 1624 and 1625 raising an anti-Habsburg army. He led this coalition in a march on Bohemia in 1626, but in a turn of events Mansfeld was forced to turn to Hungary. He intended on returning to his base after being defeated by Tilly once again. On his return home Mansfeld fell ill, and on November 29, 1626 he died in Bosnia. Mansfeld was a great force to be reckoned with during Thirty year's War. The Protestant Union can contribute much ot their success during the early phases ot the war. He was remarkable because he fought for the Protestant cause while remaining a faithful Catholic.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Quotes From The Handmaids Tale

The Handmaids Tale is a best-selling feminist novel by Margaret Atwood set in a dystopian future. In it, war and pollution have made pregnancy and childbirth increasingly difficult, and women are enslaved as prostitutes  or virginal concubines (handmaiden) in an effort to repopulate and control the population. Atwoods beautiful, haunting prose in The Handmaids Tale is told from the first-person perspective of a woman called Offred (or Of Fred, her master). The story follows Offred through her third service as a handmaiden and also offers flashbacks to her life before the Revolution that led to this new American society founded on religious fanaticism. Read on to discover quotes from The Handmaids Tale and learn more about the not-too-distant-or-improbable future outlined in Margaret Atwoods famed novel. Quotes About Hope in Dystopia Offred carries with her a certain quiet optimism that her daughter—who was taken from her when she tried to flee to Canada with her husband at the start of the revolution—is still alive, though this hope is diminished by the harsh conditions she lives under as a handmaiden, as described in Chapter Five: There is more than one kind of freedom...Freedom to and freedom from. In the days of anarchy, it was freedom to. Now you are being given freedom from. Dont underrate it. In Chapter Five, Offred also speaks of her daughter, saying, She is a flag on a hilltop, showing what can still be done: we too can be saved. Here, Offred reveals that her hope hinges upon the fact that her daughter has still not turned up on the wall where the ruling class hangs sinners near where Offred is held. Still, this optimism and hope is nothing in the face of the reality Offred finds herself in, and she admits in Chapter Seven that shes pretending the reader can hear her, But its no good because I know you cant. The Other Handmaidens Offred seems to have contempt for her fellow handmaidens, perhaps for their complacency or their simplistic view of the world: They are very interested in how other households are run; such bits of petty gossip give them an opportunity for pride or discontent. Still, Offred shares similarities with all other handmaidens in that they were the people who were not in the papers, the ones who lived in the blank white spaces at the edge of print, which Offred said gave them more freedom. All of them also undergo an indoctrination, a brainwashing ritual at the Academy where they train to be handmaidens. In Chapter 13, Offred describes a scene where the handmaidens are all seated in a circle around a woman confessing to being raped—Her fault, her fault, her fault, we chant in unison, Atwood writes. The woman training them, Aunt Lydia, also encourages all the handmaidens that though the new concepts introduced in their schooling may seem strange at first, they will eventually become mundane, but if not, the handmaidens would be punished for stepping out of line. One such instance is described in Chapter Eight: She doesnt make speeches anymore. She has become speechless. She stays in her home, but it doesnt seem to agree with her. How furious she must be now that she has been taken at her word.   Offred feels a pressure to fulfill these new standards despite herself, and in Chapter 13 says of her shortcomings, I have failed once again to fulfill the expectations of others, which have become my own. In Chapter 30, Offred says of her oppressors, That was one of the things they do. They force you to kill, within yourself. Ultimately in Chapter 32, she realizes an important lesson when her master, Fred, tells her,  Better never means better for everyone...It always means worse for some.   Other Quotes From The Handmaids Tale I dont want to look at something that determines me so completely. (Chapter 12) Give me children, or else I die. Am I in Gods stead, who hath withheld from thee the fruit of the womb? Behold my maid Bilhah. She shall bear fruit upon my knees, that I may also have children by her. (Chapter 15) Moira had power now, shed been set loose, shed set herself loose. She was now a loose woman. (Chapter 22) Maybe none of this is about control. Maybe it isnt really about who can own whom, who can do what to whom and get away with it, even as far as death. Maybe it isnt about who can sit and who has to kneel or stand or lie down, legs spread open. Maybe its about who can do what to whom and be forgiven for it. Never tell me it amounts to the same thing. (Chapter 23) There is something subversive about this garden of Serenas, a sense of buried things bursting upwards, wordlessly, into the light, as if to say: Whatever is silenced will clamor to be heard, though silently. (Chapter 25) Agreed to it right away, really she didnt care, anything with two legs and a good you-know-what was fine with her. They arent squeamish, they dont have the same feelings we do. (Chapter 33) And Adam was not deceived, but the women being deceived was in the transgression. Notwithstanding she shall be saved by childbearing. (Chapter 34) There is something reassuring about the toilets. Bodily functions at least remain democratic. Everybody shits, as Moira would say. (Chapter 39) The trouble is I cant be, with him, any different than I usually am with him. Usually, I am inert. Surely there must be something for us, other than this futility and bathos. (Chapter 39) It makes me feel more in control as if there is a choice, a decision that could be made one way or the other. (Chapter 41) The crimes of others are a secret language among us. Through them, we show ourselves what we might be capable of, after all. This is not a popular announcement. (Chapter 42) Dear God, I think, I will do anything you like. Now that youve let me off, Ill obliterate myself, if that is what you really want; Ill empty myself, truly, become a chalice. Ill give up Nick, Ill forget about the others, Ill stop complaining. Ill accept my lot. Ill sacrifice. Ill repent. Ill abdicate. Ill renounce. (Chapter 45) Dont let the bastards grind you down. I repeat this to myself but it conveys nothing. You might as well say, Dont let there be air; or Dont be. I suppose you could say that. (Chapter 46)

Monday, December 30, 2019

Essay about Declining Ethics in American Culture - 1247 Words

Declining Ethics in American Culture It is unfortunate to see how ethics in the American culture are constantly declining. People’s moral values are below normal societal standards, which is why, the older generations are outraged by the way things are now, and become rather upset and feel disturbed towards society. Furthermore, religion has lost its value throughout the years. In the essay, Do Kids Need Religion? by Anthony Brandt, he underlines the idea of how religion is not properly taught or provided to children. In Wendy Shalit’s essay, The Future of Modesty, she discusses how much modesty has reached its worst in the younger generations, however society is beginning to raise these standards once again. Nonetheless,†¦show more content†¦It is up to parents to instill faith in their kids; this way children can turn to their religion in time of need. As Brandt says, many [parents] are proud to be without religion whose children cannot afford their being without it (194). However, in today†™s modern culture, as Brandt adds, Morality can survive without religion, it appears; children can be taught the importance of right versus wrong without benefit of religious training (139). So, Americans are beginning to turn away from the church, and do not rely on the church as much as they did many years ago. Secondly, Everyday, it seems, another girl is assaulted in school, says Wendy Shalit in her essay The Future of Modesty (214). It is horrifying to say such a thing, but it is reality. In the nineteen fifties, I was not afraid of being raped; I was afraid of being talked about says Shalit (214). In fact, modesty has extremely dropped in value throughout time. In a liberal society as ours, anything goes. Teenagers are very open about their sexuality, however, they are not emotionally ready to make judgment about the quality of intimate responsibility for their actions (Religion-online 2). So, teens have such liberal views on life that their decisions often reflect poor moral judgment. YoungShow MoreRelatedNegativity as A Cause of Decline1122 Words   |  5 Pagesdecline in American work ethic. Work ethic is a set of values that is based on hard work, attitude, and character. The three main causes of negativity in the workplace are people are negative, people are discriminated ag ainst, and single parents are trying to raise their child(ren) while working. As negativity in the workplace increases, morale, productivity, and work ethic decrease. When there is negativity in the workplace, customers can be chased away. Negativity not only causes work ethic to declineRead More Clash Of Civilizations Essay examples1587 Words   |  7 PagesHuntington is the Albert J. Weatherhead III University Professor at Harvard University, director of the John M. 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Saturday, December 21, 2019

Motivation For Boko Haram s Attacks - 848 Words

Different sources have different causes of what they say was the motivation for Boko Haram’s attacks. Some sources say it was the killing of their leader in 2009 and some even say that the it was due to global warming within that country, but whatever it is, it is a big problem not only for the Islamic states but all of the other countries of the world. Their different attacks seem to show what the source of this motivation was. The group is very hard to understand in terms of their overall motivation because there is so little known information about them. Information in general is hard to come by from Nigeria. Police officers and city officials so corrupt that they give the citizens little to no information as to what is going on (Walker, 2012, p. 7). They are too motivated by their own selfish goals. The Boko Haram group itself has given no really helpful information as it has denied bombings and other terroristic activities. 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Friday, December 13, 2019

Tesla Motors Free Essays

string(53) " several rewards including 6 Car of the Year Awards\." Andrew Martin COMM 336 Informative Paper 4/4/2013 Tesla Motors Tesla Motors is a car company that designs, manufactures and sells electric vehicles. This public company was founded in 2003 by Ian Wright, JB Straubel, Marc Tarpenning, Martin Eberhard and most notably Elon Musk. Its headquarters is located in Palo Alto, California, with its main production plant in Fremont, California. We will write a custom essay sample on Tesla Motors or any similar topic only for you Order Now The company was named after Nikola Tesla, a renowned electrical engineer and physicist. Its goal is to increase the number of EV’s (Electric Vehicles) available to the market to help make it more mainstream. Currently, Tesla motors have produced two models, the Tesla Roadster and the Model S, and has unveiled a third, the Model X. In the Future, the company plans to produce family-sized minivans, electric SUV crossovers, and electric fleet vans for municipal governments. Other business includes collaborations with other companies such as Toyota, Mercedes, Daimler, Freightliner Trucks and Panasonic. Although the company has earned much success, it has hit its share of bumps along the way such as lawsuits, recalls and founder disputes. The company began when two teams wanted to start an electric car company and since their goals were similar, they joined forces to better their chances of success. The most famous of these entrepreneurs, and one of the most important and iconic figures to the company, is Elon Musk. His success began with his first company Zip2, which was bought out by Compaq for $304 million. Then he co-founded what eventually became PayPal, which was bought out for $1. 5 billion by Ebay. Elon co-founded a third company named SpaceX in 2002 where he is currently the CEO and CTO. SpaceX is a shipping company, in that it ships cargo with huge Falcon 9 rockets into space, supplying NASA’s cargo to the International Space Station. This leads us to his co-founding of Tesla Motors, where he oversaw the company’s first car, the Tesla Roadster and eventually took the position of CEO. Tesla Motors is not the first car company to produce pure EVs. In fact, EVs have been around since the 1800’s and outnumbered combustion engine vehicles. Since then, combustion cars held the market and EVs were for the most part out of the automobile scene until the 1900s. GM and several other car companies produced experimental EV’s in limited numbers but their motives were self serving, including fulfilling government emission mandates. GM’s EV1 was leased only and were crushed after the lease was up 3 years later. EV’s first found a foothold in the auto market with the introduction of the hybrids. Toyota’s Prius was the first mass-produced hybrid gasoline electric car, which was introduced to the global market in 2001. To date, the Prius has sold over 2. 5 million cars worldwide and is the world’s best selling hybrid. Since then, many other companies have produced their own versions of hybrids such as the Chevy Volt, and the Nissan Leaf, the world’s top selling EV. From the start, the Tesla Motor company has had a strategy for entering the market as an EV auto maker. It is difficult enough to start a new car company without a long built reputation, but to enter a new and uncharted market is bold and very risky. To do this, Tesla first would build a sports car with low production numbers in order to prove their technology. Next, they would shift do to luxury models that are more affordable and their last step is to build affordable EVs to compete with economy cars already on the market. In 2008, Tesla Motors started selling its first EV, the Tesla Roadster, which was just a Lotus Elise with a Tesla electric drive system. It was designed to compete with other sports cars in its price range. Not only was it Tesla Motors first production vehicle, it was the first highway-capable all-electric vehicle in serial production for sale in the US, and the first production car to use lithium-ion batteries, allowing it also to be the first all-electric car to have a range greater than 200 miles per charge. Its 288HP electric engine allows it to accelerate 0-60 in just 3. 7 seconds. This power has allowed it to win the Monet Carlo Alternative Energy Rally and the Federation Inernationale di I’Automobile. The EPA rates the Roadsters range at 244 miles but at 25mph, it can accomplish 300 miles, the urrent distance record for a production EV. Production ceased in 2012 and over 2,250 Roadsters have been sold worldwide. Tesla’s next move was to build a more practical 4 door sedan for a broader market. These would be built at the Tesla Factory in Fremont, California. Unlike the Tesla Roadster, the entire car would be built at the factory rather than just putting a motor in a n existing car. The Model S is the first production car to come out of the newly purchased factory and deliveries began in June of 2012. Three packages are available, with the Performance package boasting 420 hp and an EPA range of 265 miles. Although the car weighs over 2 tons, its low center of gravity allows for excellent handling and because it’s driven by an electric motor with no gear box, it can still accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in 4. 4 seconds. Another difference of the Model S over the Roadster is its charging ability. An optional supercharger can add 150 miles of range in just 30 minutes and can fully charge the cars battery in just one hour. Tesla is adding Supercharging stations across the country and is free to use for Tesla owners. These Supercharging stations are solar powered and any extra power is fed back into the grid. From a normal 110V/12A outlet, one our adds 5 miles of range and from a 220V/40A oulet, one our adds 31 miles of range. The Model S has received much appraise and has one several rewards including 6 Car of the Year Awards. You read "Tesla Motors" in category "Papers" The Model S starts at just $62,000 for the basic model and its top model costs $87,400 USD. In 2014, the Tesla Factor will start full production of its second EV, the Model X. This model is an SUV with several innovations and some impressive performance. First, it doesn’t have side mirrors but instead uses cameras to reduce its coefficient of drag, making it more aerodynamic. Next, it has uses hinged falcon-wing doors, allowing easier access for rear passengers. The performance model has two motors, allowing for four-wheel drive and accelerates from 0 to 60 in just 4. 4 seconds. Its range is similar to the Models S and is said to be 270 miles. Although it weighs 10% more, it shares 60% of the Model S components including its 17† touchscreen control panel, but unlike the Model S, it has two touchscreens on the steering wheel for multi-function control. In order to build its EVs, Tesla Motors first needed to find a place to build its line of cars. It first planned to build a factory in Albuquerque, New Mexico but was canceled and a factory in San Jose, California was also canceled due to cost. Fortunately, the economy went south in 2008 and the NUMMI plant occupied by both GM and Toyota was abandoned. In 2010, Tesla Motors purchased the factory building for $42 million. Most of the 370-acre facility is unused and the only activity seen is the Tesla Factory’s production of the Model S. Not only did Tesla acquire the 5,500,000-square-foot main building, but they also acquired over $17 million in manufacturing equipment and parts, making the start-up cost of Tesla Motors less. Currently, around 1,000 workers are employed at the factory, producing 20,000 vehicles a year. Along with its own line of vehicles, Tesla Motors also has several collaborations with some well known company’s. Daimler’s Mercedes line had Tesla build electric powertrain components for its A-Aclass E-Cell, which has a 124 mile range. Only 500 of these cars were built in Europe to test the market. Another project Tesla is currently working on for Daimler is the power train for the Smart Fortwo vehicle. In July of 2010, Toyota announced that it would be working with Tesla Motors to produce an electric version of the RAV4. Toyota converted 35 RAV4s for evaluation, using the power pack from Tesla’s Model S and powertrain components. Freightliner Trucks are also working with Tesla, using their battery packs for their Custom Chassis Electric Van. At Tesla, workers have passion for doing the right thing for the world. People are overworked and underpaid, but are endlessly fueled by a desire to tackle one of the most important challenges society has ever faced, protecting the planet. Giving future generations a good place to live is important to everyone at Tesla, unlike some other companies. One example was GM’s EV-1 electric car, which was built in the late 1990s. GM didn’t build an EV-1 to help the planet, but rather to fulfill a California mandate for a zero-emission vehicle. After fulfilling this mandate, all EV-1s were repossessed from lease and most were crushed. Unlike GMs self sabotaged EV-1, Tesla’s Model S and other models are out to create a paradigm shift and it all starts with the corporate culture. Tesla’s internal communication mediums include phones, pagers, video networking, email and everything a normal office would expect to have. A less obvious, but perhaps the most important type of internal communication is person to person. Tesla’s offices allow for this by leaving the office open. Different teams are all in the same room, so that communication is done on a personal level from one department to another. This open environment office space approach helps the synergy of the entire Tesla team. Being a high tech auto company, Tesla also communicates externally by all the ways a tech company should. Their website includes a forums section that allows owners and non owners to make posts and comments on a number of Tesla topics. This is a way for customers and enthusiast to communicate with the company directly on the site. Tesla also keeps a blog on their site to keep the community up to date with the company. Along with their website, Tesla also has a Twitter, Google+, Facebook and Vimeo pages. Tesla also has the ability to directly communicate with their cars aswell. When a new firmware version comes out for the car, it can automatically download and update the new firmware. In one case, a Telsa customer was trying to charge his car at one of Tesla’s super chargers but the car would not charge. The owner called Tesla and they were able to send a firmware update within an hour, which fixed the problem. Another public relation strategy is to off the superchargers free to Tesla costumers for life. Some of the communication challenges for Tesla have been the negative media about the company. One incident included a lawsuit with the BBCs popular auto show called â€Å"Top Gear. † Tesla’s Roadster was featured in an episode and it was written in the script for the car to rail. Overall, the episode put down the car in a negative way. Tesla Motors took them to court but the case was not successful for Tesla. Another incident was a NYT reporter giving the car a negative review. In defense, Tesla released data to compare what the journalist said and how the car was actually driven. In the end, the journalist was discredited. In general, Tesla Motors and its vehicles have a very positive public relationship. Before the Model S was released to customers with reservations, Tesla held events that would allow customers to test drive the car in order to ease the tension of eager clients. These events were also good opportunities for reporters to get a look at the new EV. Since then, there have also been many other events, showcasing the car. Elon Musk and other important head figures of the company often speak at these events. Other positive publicity and exposure has been done though the media. The National Geographics Channel had an episode of â€Å"Megafactories Supercars† covering the Tesla Factory as it produces the Model S. Another popular outlet for Tesla media are videos available on sites such as Vimeo and Youtube and the Tesla website. How to cite Tesla Motors, Papers

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Business Text Messaging and Berlo Model

Question: Discuss about the Business Text Messaging and Berlo Model. Answer: Introduction: Text messaging and other non-verbal types of communication are known to kill many businesses as receivers often misinterpret these messages. Several studies have indicated that as much as between 50 and 65 percent of communication at the workplace is nonverbal. The use of text messaging for business purposes, however, continues to grow, and business should use Berlo's communication model to how to solve this prevalent communication issue (Nei? Nei?, 2015; Boone et al., 2013). Berlos model best illustrates the reasons text messaging is a major communication issue and makes it possible to find the right solutions. It describes factors affecting individual components in communication and puts significant emphasis on encoding and decoding which always occurs before one sends a message and before the receiver gets it. Berlos model has four components, namely, sender, messenger, channel, and receiver, and each of these components is affected by a variety of factors (Matusitz, 2013; Daniels et al., 2014). This model demonstrates that where body language is part of the intended communication, text messaging should be avoided. One of the factors that affect both the sender and the receiver is communication skills. Both the sender and the receiver should have great communication skills for communication between them to be effective. If the sender is texting or sending an email, he should use clear and easy to understand language. The receiver should also be able to understand. Otherwise, there will be a communication barrier. Cultural issues and other factors can make it impossible to clearly know how to communicate with a new client (Madlock, 2011). The attitude of the sender and receiver towards themselves and their environments creates the effect of the message. Additionally, the familiarity with the subject of the message makes the sender pass across the message more effectively. In the absence of body language, a negative attitude of one of two parties can compromise the message (Guidelines for Special Issues of the Journal of Business Communication, 2010). Further, social systems and social factors such as religion, laws, and beliefs also affect the message. A person from one culture might find a text message offensive but find the same message pleasing when delivered face to face. This difference arises because body language might help to pass across the intended message (Kuhn, 2011). This component of the communication model can be in many other forms such as audio, video, or voice. In this case, it is the text or email that is being sent to the receiver. These are the nonverbal things often in the message such as signs and gestures. In the context of text messaging, there are often no elements making it difficult to capture some critical aspects of a message. The structure is the way a message has been arranged. It also affects the effectiveness of the message. The element refers to the way the message has been conveyed to the receiver. It can affect the feedback significantly. The term code refers the form in which the message is sent. In many cases in the current business environment, most people use text due to its cost-effectiveness. As has been shown above, the choice of code has an effect on the message. This component of this communication model refers to the medium used to send the message. Technical machines such as the internet and phones can be used in mass communication and some other forms of communication. The five senses of a human being affect the effectiveness of the channel in general communication (Esser Hanitzsch, 2012). Seeing: Receivers can perceive through the sense of sight Smelling: The sense of smelling is also good for collecting information Tasting: People also get information to be sent through taste. Hearing: People receive audio messages through hearing Touching: The human body uses senses in the skin to determine the physical characteristics of objects. This component is Berlos model is the individuals who get the message. According to this communication model, for communication to be effective, the thinking pattern and all other factors mentioned here have to be in sync to that of the sender and the receiver. The receiver must also have an excellent listening skill (Boone et al., 2013). Commonly Recognized Body Language and Application to Business Eye Contact: The eyes can express anything from interest and happiness to annoyance and pain. Where ones integrity is in questions, text messaging cannot be used to solve a problem. Staring, on the other hand, can be interpreted as too aggressive. These features are evident in person but are lost in a text (Mccabe Timmins, 2013). At the beginning of any interactions, this one should come into play to signal both goodwill and openness. In the end, it often signals agreement. Where one wants to demonstrate sincerity, palm-to-palm contact is preferred. This great cultural element is absent from emails and text messages. This body language always signals concern or lack of conviction. If a person is saying something and covering the mouth at the same time, he may be lying (Assaiante, 2012). Any message delivered with a hungry face has a completely different impact from one delivered with a smiling face. Smiley face emotions have been invented to help people set the right emotion while delivering any message. However, they do not usually work since the sincerity is lost. Crossed legs or folded arms may indicate a lack of interest and detachment. On the other hand, uncrossed arms and legs may indicate acceptance of your terms or your position. At the same time, an introvert will have their toes pointed out while an extrovert will have them pointed out. None of these gestures can come through in text messaging (Assaiante, 2012). Conclusion Text messages can be an efficient and appropriate business tools, but it should be used with great care. In a case where a 10-word text message can communicate a simple message efficiently, texting could be the right option. However, many business processes such as negotiating a contract, managing employees, opening and closing sales are quite complicated and do not require just a few words. References Assaiante, J. G. (2012). Body Language. Body Language. doi:10.3726/978-1-4539-0214-1 Boone, L. E., Kurtz, D. L., Khan, M. H., Canzer, B. M. (2013). Contemporary business. Etobicoke, Ont.: Wiley. Daniels, D., Hunter, A., McGhie, V., Horn, J. M., Jaarsveldt, M. V., Vuuren, T. V. (2014). Business communication. Cape Town: Oxford University Press, Southern Africa. Esser, F., Hanitzsch, T. (2012). Handbook of comparative communication research. New York: Routledge. Guidelines for Special Issues of the Journal of Business Communication and Business Communication Quarterly. (2010). Business Communication Quarterly, 73(2), 237-239. doi:10.1177/1080569910365792 Kuhn, T. (2011). Matters of communication: political, cultural, and technological challenges to communication theorizing. New York: Hampton Press. Madlock, P. E., Booth-Butterfield, M. (2011). The Influence of Relational Maintenance Strategies Among Coworkers. Journal of Business Communication, 49(1), 21-47. doi:10.1177/0021943611425237 Matusitz, J. A. (2013). Terrorism amp; communication: a critical introduction. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. Mccabe, C., Timmins, F. (2013). Communication Skills. Communication Skills for Nursing Practice, 71-92. doi:10.1007/978-1-137-34449-6_4 Nei?, M., Nei?, V. (2015). Neuroscience of Nonverbal Communication. The Social Psychology of Nonverbal Communication, 31-65. doi:10.1057/9781137345868_3