Tuesday, June 9, 2020

Ideologies of the Culture that Created - 3300 Words

Visual Texts Display the Beliefs and Ideologies of the Culture that Created (Case Study Sample) Content: Visual texts display the beliefs and ideologies of the culture that createdThemUnitName of your degreeYour nameStudent IDIntroductionCulture is communicated to people and preserved in a variety of ways. Over the years, fiction stories, newspapers, magazines and academic texts have been the medium that transmitted and preserved culture. While it is true that these medium capture attention, manipulate the public and influence our thinking while preserving and transmitting culture, the growing use of visual texts does these faster. Visual excitement has been a common happening that is now a threat to education since many students are now logging the internet for exiting visual texts. Culture and beliefs of the creators is embedded in the visual texts they create. A common photograph will communicate much more than the immediate environment since culture can be seen in mode of dressing, the type of food to be eaten, the captured action, symbols, signals and sign. However, it is also true to say that visual text is a representation of universal culture. This paper shall discuss the representation of gender in culture. It will also consider the effect of photo as a tool of propaganda and finally discuss the perception of the death and nature. Additionally, the paper shall demonstrate how the depiction of gender, death and propaganda is embodies in the creators culture. The paper shall also address how meaning is communicated through the use of visual images by analyzing the images attached herein as the appendix.Background informationTo begin with, an image has the power to summarize weighty ideas, start arguments, and stimulate thinking as well as action instantly (Frascina, 2003). The effects of an image are immensely felt both in the mind and heart of the viewer as images reflect on culture. Duncombe said that "the importance of visual text is either to provoke people to think or initiate action" (Duncombe 1997, p. 98). Visual images can be accesse d by members of diverse cultures; it is a language that all human beings can use to communicate.CultureMitchell defined culture as "rule-governed symbolic activities that include shared information or activities used by a community at any time and place" (Mitchell 1994, p. 12). Barthes (2003, p.18) said that culture shapes the thinking of a community in certain ways. In his discussion about culture and semiotics, he asserted that values and belief system are transmitted in second order language that make use of images, symbols, stories and values through verbal language and sign systems such as visual image, information technology and media (Barthes, 2003). The symbols of culture are dynamic as they vary. Culture includes belief system and ideologies.Ideology is "the way a society views everyday life" (Howells 2003, p. 74). However Karl max saw ideology as a system used by the elite to exploit and control the masses Howells 2003, p. 71). Visual images can be termed as ideological pr actices that represent desires, value and preferences. The images capture our ideology. This means that visual images reflect the values, beliefs and culture of the creators. It was not until visual images were incorporated into social studies that visual images gained importance in the study of culture. The idea of ideology was incorporated inform of photography of war (Howells, 2003).Cultural studies modelCritics have claimed that academic cultural studies have reduced the content of the media by analyzing the political and ideological messages (Frascina, 2003 and Howells, 2003). The model that is used for culture analysis has been referred to as effect model of analysis that does not use activities of individuals, groups, the agencies and even subculture by focusing on commercial mechanism. Cultural Marxism is "built upon the concept of hegemony through the social-economic process" (Howells 2003, p. 74). This means that cultural studies usually portray a more dominant ideology wh ich is acceptable to the public. Visual culture is ideally ideologically encoded to take advantage of the willingness of the consumers by perpetuating the status quo (Howells, 2003). This is achieved as a result of dominate ideology that is imposed on the minority who sees the world according to the perspective of the creators of the images.Cultural believes and ideologies that circulate in visual image could include individuality that presents personal preferences and identities that forces conformity of the consumers. We may also have freedom of choice and sex expression. Furthermore, the analysis of culture determines social behavior by multiple identities such as sex, race, gender, social class and even nationality which might be transmitted in power, gender, believe system and economic value.However, Frascina (2003) has shown that there exist many strategies for dealing with visual image contents: by way of negotiating while moderating the meaning basing on the culture, or subs tituting the opposing code. These strategies have gone a long way to create subcultures among the communities using visual images, music and media which creates differentiation from the main cultures.Believes and ideologiesIdeology can be defined as individually held values (Frascina 2003, p. 12). However, for the purpose of this paper, we shall use description of ideology that states; constructed views of the world that are contained in a culture. Regarding visual images, individual topics or subjects take up social positions by gaining identity. They can also be subjecting and compelling. Additionally, ideology is a believe system of a community or a social group.InterpretationWalker and Chaplin (1997) described interpretation as discursive output that aligns meaning in all systems of signs through vision. He added that interpretation is in the same form as the vision that is interpreting (Walker and Chaplin, 1997). This means that the interpretation of a form of art object is in the supplementary art work and subsequent texts. A system of symbolic relationships will guide the act of interpretation to make occurring meaning. Interpretation therefore supplements seen signs since it is not an opinion but subjection of culture in a way that express work. Vision and intelligibility are important during interpretation of any work of art. The work is presented because it means something and deserves community interpretation or language interpretation recognition.Members of cultures transfer meanings by lesser access to the preexisting believe, cultures and ideologies and actual images reflect in the mainstream culture. Signs are associated with the attached meaning and are associated with sub-culture. Visual images are described as the memory machines that support the culture that they transmit in physical form (Walker and Chaplin 1997). They added that "enhancing domination of certain aspects of shared content is a role played by vision and visuality because peop le have gender, age, personalities and histories" (Walker and Chaplin 1997, p. 22).Representation of gender rolesVisual images constantly send, receive and make cultural meanings. Social aspects are also explored in culture and community to make the visual images meaningful in the context of culturally meaningful activities. The representation of gender in cultures is more evident in advertisements (Mirzoeff, 2009). Analyzing the photos presented in appendix 1 and 2 will shade light to the stereotyping of the modern woman. The idea of beauty for the modern woman goes beyond physical attributes and sophistication.Deconstructing the two images shades light to the idea of the modern beauty that goes beyond physical attributes. The dominant culture has facilitated ideologies and believes such as perceived gender roles in a culture that is struggling to get identity. Mirzoeff (2009) noted that women have been considered as being emotional expressive and are majorly likened to household c hore. On the other hand, the gentle man has been assigned roles that are associated with male and it is associated with hostility, resilience and sovereignty (appendix 7 and 8). The male gender is communally associated with communal activities. Culture supports stereotyped roles by building expectations of certain genders as constructed by the creator of the work. Housewives culture has been dominant until recently women are dominated as they take to fashion and modeling. They reveal sexual attributes which are closely associated with caring, loving and motherliness (Mirzoeff, 2009). The woman in appendix 1 draws the attention of the viewer toward sexual organs to include breasts and genital as her dress is revealing. Such culture could treat women as object of male satisfaction. In this regard, visual images showing women include fashion trends, family, cleanliness and pleasing others.However, culture treats men differently. They are portrayed as authoritative and dependable (appen dix 10). Most images will show men at work and women at home or modeling. As evidenced in culture, the role of the media advertisement is a representation of the changes in societal roles. The dress code of the images of women in appendix 2 and appendix 11 is signified by à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"shouting colorsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬ and nudity to attract the attention of the public.Studies by Pattison show that most of the US house hold watched television for more than eight hours a day on average (Pattison, 2007). The TV will then memorize the contents, images and wordings without questioning. This process will go a long way to form a common culture or world view and common values.Ideology and subjectivityThe aspect of culture can be analyzed basing on visual images in advertisements. Howells (2003) described ideology as the condition in which meaning that is determined by the preset conditions of the society is perpetuated. The artist of...

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Hum 111 Week 10 Assignment 3 Strayer - 1430 Words

HUM 111 WEEK 10 ASSIGNMENT 3 STRAYER To purchase this visit following link: https://coursehomework.com/product/hum-111-week-10-assignment-3-strayer/ Contact us at: HELP@COURSEHOMEWORK.COM HUM 111 WEEK 10 ASSIGNMENT 3 STRAYER Due Week 10 (03/14/2016) and worth 100 points As a way of experiencing the Humanities beyond your classroom, computer, and textbook, you are asked to do a certain type of â€Å"cultural activity† that fits well with our course and then report on your experience. Your instructor will require you to propose an activity and get instructor approval before you do it and report on it (students should look for any instructions in that respect). Every effort should be made to ensure that this is a hands-on experience (not a†¦show more content†¦Note: Submit your cultural activity choice to the instructor for approval before the end of Week 5 (earlier is even better). Look for guidance from the instructor for how or where to make your proposal. You may also seek advice from your instructor (provide your town/state or zip code) for a good activity in your general area. Visiting a Museum †¢ It makes sense to approach a museum the way a seasoned traveler approaches visiting a city for the first time. Find out what there is available to see. In the museum, find out what sort of exhibitions are currently housed in the museum and start with the exhibits that interest you. †¢ If there is a travelling exhibition, it’s always a good idea to see it while you have the chance. Then, if you have time, you can look at other things in the museum. †¢ Every effort should be made ahead of time to identify a museum that has items and works one can easily connect to our HUM 111 class and book. Since HUM 111 covers from ancient times to the 1500s AD, it makes more sense to focus on items from that time frame. In general, museums with artistic cultural artifacts and fine arts work better than history museums. †¢ Any questions about whether a museum-visit activity fits the course and assignment well enough will be decided by the instructor when the student seeks approval for the activity. Any alternative

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Similarities And Differences Between Catcher In The Rye...

There are many differences found between the protagonists of The Catcher in the Rye and The Sun is also a Star, that give readers further insight on each character. A major distinction between Holden Caulfield,the protagonist of The Catcher in the Rye, written by J.D. Salinger, and Natasha Kingsley, the protagonist of The Sun is also a Star, by Nicola Yoon, is the mental stability between both characters. In The Catcher in the Rye, Holden’s mental stability weakens as the novel progresses, and readers understand the mental incompetence that is within Holden. A great example of this is when Holden makes the impulsive decision to leave his boarding school, because of a dispute between his roommate. Holden decides, â€Å"All of a sudden, I†¦show more content†¦It really does.† (Salinger 6) Through the satirical tone Holden delivers to the reader, one can infer that Holden is treating this matter in a nonchalant way; therefore, Holden does not feel like he needs to succeed in life nor do well in school. Howbeit, readers learn that in The Sun is also a Star, Natasha strives to succeed in her future and do well in school. For ex ample, when Natasha thinks about her future in Jamaica a wave of sadness and fear compels her; Natasha has imagined a future going to college in America, a future she has worked very hard for, however, now she cannot obtain. Natasha asserts, â€Å"What about college?† I ask, crying now. My tears are unstoppable. They’ve been waiting for a long time to come out.† (Yoon 22) With the use of personification, readers can understand the distress and anguish Natasha is currently in, and how she has held her education a priority for her, and now it is being taken away from her. From analyzing both contexts and characters, readers can identify the common differences Holden and Natasha possess. Natasha holds her education and future to be her first priority, however Holden treats this matter with negligence and disregard. Additionally, a common contrast between Holden and Natasha is their way to address their problem. In The Catcher in the Rye, Salinger crafts the character of Holden to be incompetent and juvenile, which causes him to approach his problems in an inept manner.Show MoreRelatedEssay Writing9260 Words   |  38 Pagesintroduction. But your introduction serves the same purpose as it would if the reader were coming to it voluntarily. You must convince the reader that your essay is worth reading. The Structure of an Introduction A simple model for the relationship between the introduction, the body, and the conclusion is the old newspaper maxim: You tell em what you re gonna tell em you tell em, and then you tell em what you told em. In an introduction, you lay out a plan for what will follow. HoweverRead MoreEssay Prompts4057 Words   |  17 Pagesof the Artist as a Young Man A Gesture Life Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead Ghosts The Scarlet Letter Great Expectations Sister Carrie The Great Gatsby The Sound and Fury Gulliver’s Travels Sula Heart of Darkness The Sun Also Rises Invisible Man Their Eyes Were Watching God Joe Turner’s Come and Gone The Things They Carried King Lear The Turn of the Screw Major Barbara Who’s Afraid of Virginia Wolf 2004 (Form B): The most important themes in literature

Cloning Is It Ethical Essay Research Paper free essay sample

Cloning- Is It Ethical Essay, Research Paper Familial Engineering ; Cloning In today? universe of advanced engineering and even faster advancement of this engineering one has to halt and analyze what we have accomplished. How far do we desire to travel with this engineering of familial technology, peculiarly in the field of cloning. Examining familial technology and its many possibilities holds great hope for the hereafter. Centrally the issue of cloning has been a hot subject in the media chiefly because its has become a technological every bit good as a medical discovery. The possibilities of cloning are countless that is, if it works. But the other side of the coin are the moralss of the procedure. What happens when we master cloning of organic structure parts and venture out to clone worlds? Will this ringer be person who has feelings, and head and a spirit of its ain? Will it hold a psyche? Familial Engineering, the change of an being # 8217 ; s familial, or familial, stuff to extinguish unwanted features or to bring forth desirable new 1s ( Brennan, 57 ) . Familial technology is used to increase works and animate being nutrient production ; to name disease, better medical intervention, and bring forth vaccinums and other utile drugs. ( Brennan, 58 ) . Included in familial technology techniques are the selective genteelness of workss and animate beings, and recombinant DNA. The first familial technology technique, still used today, was the selective genteelness of workss and animate beings, normally for increased nutrient production. In selective genteelness, merely those workss or animate beings with good features are chosen for farther genteelness. Corn has been selectively bred for increased meats size and figure and for nutritionary content. More late, selective genteelness of wheat and rice in an attempt called the green revolution has helped provide the universe # 8217 ; s ever-increasing demand for nutrient ( Clarke, 1211 ) . This is besides another facet of engineering that has improved over the old ages. Production has proved that we can turn more with less land mass. Cattle and hogs were foremost domesticated about 8000 old ages ago and through selective genteelness have become chief beginnings of meat for worlds. Dogs and Equus caballuss have besides been selectively bred for 1000s of old ages for recreational intents. Over the past 20 old ages, familial technology has been revolutionized by a new technique known as recombinant DNA, or cistron splice, with which scientists can straight change familial stuff ( Encarta, 03 ) . Genes consist of the chemical deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) . In recombinant DNA, the Deoxyribonucleic acid of one being is joined to the Deoxyribonucleic acid of a 2nd being to bring forth a recombinant Deoxyribonucleic acid. When this recombinant DNA is spliced with another being, it for good changes the familial make-up of that being. Recombinant DNA techniques have transformed familial technology in works and animate being nutrient production and medical specialty. In most instances, DNA can non be transferred straight from its original being, known as the giver, to the receiver being, known as the host ( Brennan? ? ) . Alternatively, the giver DNA must be cut and recombined with a duplicate fragment of Deoxyribonucleic acid from an being that can transport the giver DNA into the host. In 1982 the United States Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ) approved for the first clip the medical usage of a recombinant DNA protein, the endocrine insulin, which had been cloned in big measures ( Encarta, 05 ) . Previously, this endocrine, used by diabetics had been available merely in limited measures from pigs. Since that clip, the FDA has approved other genetically engineered proteins for usage in worlds. Scientists besides have employed recombinant DNA techniques to bring forth medically utile human proteins in carnal milk ( Clarke, 1211 ) . In this process, the human cistron responsible for the coveted protein is foremost linked to specific cistrons of the animate being that are active merely in its milk-producing secretory organs ( Clarke, 1211 ) . The egg of the animate being is so injected with the linked cistrons. The ensuing babes will hold these linked cistrons in every cell of their organic structure but will bring forth the human protein merely in their milk. The human protein is eventually extracted from the animate being # 8217 ; s milk for usage as medical specialty. In this manner, sheep # 8217 ; s milk is used to bring forth an enzyme used in the intervention of emphysema ; cow # 8217 ; s milk is used to bring forth a protein that combats bacterial infections ; and goat # 8217 ; s milk is used as yet another manner to bring forth blood-clot-dissolving enzyme besides cloned in hamster cell civilizations ( Encarta, 04 ) . Now that familial technology has been to the full reviewed, the issue of cloning will be introduced and examined. The definition of a ringer, an being, or group of beings, derived from another being by an nonsexual generative procedure ( Church of Scotland, 02 ) . Normally the members of a ringer are indistinguishable in their familial features? that is, in their cistrons? except for any differences caused by mutant ( Encarta, 06 ) . Identical twins, for illustration, who originate from the division of a individual fertilized egg, are members of a ringer ; whereas non-identical twins, derived from two separate fertilized eggs, are non ringers. Through the recent progresss in familial technology, scientists can insulate the single cistron ( or group of cistrons ) from one being and turn it in another being belonging to a different species ( Clarke, 1211 ) . Thus it is able to bring forth a ringer of beings, or cells, that all contain the same foreign cistron or cistrons. This technique is called cloning because it uses ringers of beings or cells. For obvious grounds it has great economic and medical potency and is the topic of huge research. Identical-twin animate beings ( or worlds ) may be produced by cloning every bit good. An embryo in the early phase of development is removed from the womb and split, so each separate portion is placed in a foster womb. Mammals such as mice and sheep have been produced by this method, which is by and large called embryo splitting. Another development has been the find that a whole karyon, incorporating an full set of chromosomes, can be taken from a cell and injected into a fertilized egg whose ain karyon has been removed ( Encarta, 06 ) . This cloning technique is in theory capable of bring forthing big Numberss of genetically indistinguishable persons. Experiments utilizing this technique have been successfully accomplished with toads and mice. Advancement in cloning higher mammals beyond an early embryologic phase presents a much more formidable challenge. Genes in cells at the earliest phases of embryologic life carry the encoded cognition that enables cells to develop into any portion of the organic structure ( Bereano, 754 ) . But sceptics theorized that one time cells form into specific organic structure interiors, they thereafter lose the capableness to retrace the full being from the familial contents of the karyon. However, in July 1996, a squad of Scots scientists produced the first unrecorded birth of a healthy sheep cloned from an grownup mammal. The squad scraped skin cells from the bag of a donor sheep ( sheep A ) and these cells were temporarily? starved? of foods to halt cell development. An unfertilised egg was removed from a 2nd sheep ( sheep B ) and its karyon was removed to extinguish familial features of the giver egg. A tegument cell from sheep A ( incorporating a karyon with familial stuff ) was fused with the unfertilize vitamin D egg from sheep B. The egg, now with a full complement of cistrons, began spliting and was placed into the womb of a alternate female parent ( sheep C ) . The embryo developed usually and was delivered safely. Named Dolly, this healthy sheep was introduced to the universe with much ostentation in February 1997 ( Encarta, 06 ) . While Dolly has most of the familial features of sheep Angstrom, she is non a true ringer. Not all of an animate being? s cistrons are found in the cell? s karyon. There are a few twelve cistrons that reside in the chondriosome outside the karyon in the cell? s cytol. In Dolly? s instance, some of these cistrons were supplied by the giver egg of sheep B ( Encarta, 06 ) . Ethical motives Public reaction to the usage of recombinant DNA in familial technology has been mixed. The production of medical specialties through the usage of genetically altered being has by and large been welcomed. However, critics of recombinant DNA fright that the pathogenic, or disease-producing, beings used in some recombinant DNA experiments might develop highly infective signifiers that could do world-wide epidemics ( Harris, 754 ) . Questions have been raised refering the morality of bring forthing transgenic beings. In add-on, some critics object to the patenting of genetically altered beings because it makes the beings the belongings of peculiar companies ( Zou, 03 ) . ? I believe that censoring cloning would ( 1 ) halt of import research that could be critical in many future medical Fieldss. ( 2 ) halt progresss in current engineerings such as sterility. And last of all ( 3 ) halt something that has the possible to alleviate human agony? ( Zou, 01 ) .Here Zou presents his thoughts on why human cloning should non be banned. His thoughts are widely expressed as the popular pick for human cloning. These grounds may look as all the grounds we need to continue with cloning but what is the other side of the coin? ? ? coverage has put excessively much accent on the demands of research scientists, while underacting the unity and self-respect of research topics? ( Bereano, 754 ) . The self-respect of the research topic is an of import facet of cloning. What happens if there was an exact transcript of one individual in two different topographic points in the universe? One physicist points out the fact that if a ringer had the exact familial make-up every bit good as the same memories and encephalon moving ridges, the ringer every bit good as the original would be convinced that each of them were the original. How would the research capable feel about holding a ringer in the same universe? ? On rule, to retroflex any human technologically is against the basic self-respect of the singularity of each human being in God # 8217 ; s sight. Christians would see this as a misdemeanor of the singularity of a human life, which God has given to each of us and to no 1 else. Even indistinguishable twins are alone as persons? ( Church of Scotland, 01 ) . Here is an statement against the cloning of worlds presented by the manager of this church. This statement is considered the direct antonym or the? other side of the coin? . Human self-respect is a monolithic portion of the human race and I think that is why the issue of cloning is traveling to be another one the unanswerable subjects, like abortion. Detecting some personal positions on cloning from persons with experience, thoughts about this affair could be somewhat altered. In the instance of Simon Kenwright, a male parent who had lost his teenage boy, neer paid much attending to medical issues until a discovery in engineering could be a savior. Cryopreservation was an option that Simon thought might be plausible because he had heard about cloning. Possibly raising his boy once more in the hereafter when this process was perfected was a enticement he had to defy. ? The option seemed morally incorrect, and seemed to take away from the significance of life and decease? ( Kenwright, 1401 ) . Another instance refering the issue of cloning is the instance of the Ayala sister? s. In 1990, a kid was conceived for the intent of being a giver for a bone marrow graft for the older sister who was diagnosed with leukaemia. Was this an ethical or medical determination? Henning Allmers of Germany proclaims, ? Experience in every field of scientific discipline Teachs us that procedures that are technically possible will be performed? ( Allmers, 1401 ) . Henning besides brings up the issue of the black market. That cloning should be? busted unfastened? so the black market habit have a opportunity to do anything of this. In decision, familial technology has come under such examination merely to supply assorted options medically every bit good as technologically. The procedure of selective genteelness seemed harmless every bit good as progressing in the field of agribusiness and animate being genteelness. This might be considered the gap room access to recombinant DNA. Selective genteelness was fundamentally taking the best of what was there and engendering it with another being of the same sort. In recombinant DNA, there is existent cistron splicing to bring forth another being. Many new progresss have been made with this new method of familial technology. And so there is cloning, which is taking an being and doing an exact transcript of it. I would wish to take this chance to portion my thoughts and ideas about the affair of familial technology and more specifically cloning. Genetic technology has provided many new progresss in medical specialty which may hold helped salvage lives. I feel that we did hold to take a few hazards to happen out what new helpful medical specialties we could derive. I have no expostulations to familial technology in general, until it comes to cloning. The existent idea of cloning a human scares me and I am certain to many others. Cloning organic structure parts could be really good to the universe and we would come in a new epoch of medical specialty. But embarking out and cloning an existent homo will achieve a batch of unwanted reactions. Its a topic that I think will neer genuinely be solved like abortion or mercy killing. The creative activity of Dolly represents a alone progress for cloning engineering, but it intensified the argument about subjecting worlds to cloning. Rather than a pre liminary to human cloning, nevertheless, many scientists say the accomplishment of cloning is the precursor of a revolution in carnal genteelness. Cloning animate beings, to me, is non that large of a trade. But cloning worlds is a wholly new ball game. The biggest inquiry in my head about a human ringer is whether this ringer would hold a psyche. Or would it be person that looks, negotiations and Acts of the Apostless like you or me, but would be losing that particular something in his/her oculus. 1. Brennan, Richard P. , Levitating Trains and Kamikaze Genes. New York: John Wiley A ; Sons, Inc. , 1994. 2. Clarke, Bryan C. , ? Quantum: cloning and its moralss? . The Science? s. Volume 37, issue 3 ( June 1997 ) : Pg. 1211. 3. John Harris A ; Philip Bereano. ? Is cloning an onslaught on human self-respect? ? Nature. Volume 387, issue 6635 ( June 19, 1997 ) : Pg. 754. 4. Henning Allmers A ; Simon Kenwright. ? Ethical motives of Cloning? . The Lancet. Volume 349, issue 9062 ( May 10, 1997 ) : Pg. 1401. 5. Church of Scotland. ? Should we clone worlds? ? Main web page. Date? Online article. Hypertext transfer protocol: //webzone.ccacyber.com/www/srtpoject/clonhuml.htm 6. Zou, Ben. ? Should Cloning be banned? ? Main web page. Date? Online article. Hypertext transfer protocol: //home.att.net/~dequanandben/cloning.htm 7. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia

Monday, April 20, 2020

Salim Group free essay sample

The focus of the Salim Group’s operations adapted to Indonesia’s economic policies and shifted from trading to manufacturing, and ultimately diversified into a series of unrelated sectors. Following the fall of Suharto and the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the Salim Group has continued to internationalize its portfolio with Liem’s son, Anthony Salim, as the group’s chief executive. Currently, the Salim Group’s main holdings are in food, media, automotive, property and telecom with aggregated revenues estimated at 14 billion USD in 2012. The biggest companies in the portfolio include First Pacific Ltd. , Indofood and Indomobil. The competitive landscape consists of other multinational companies and Indonesian conglomerates on a group level, and industry specific competitors in each distinct business field. Although certain elements of the Salim Group are comparable to the traditional Chinese family business, such as its extensive network of relationships, through adaptations to this model, including the professionalization of management and business, an open and informal culture, and a decision-making process supported by strict internal monitoring procedures, the group has been able to achieve significantly greater scale and success. We will write a custom essay sample on Salim Group or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Anthony Salim has already dictated the firm’s future strategy, which entails an expansion throughout Australia-ASEAN-China (‘Axis of Prosperity’), a portfolio focus on industries known to the group, and the development of local managers for regional adaptation. Going forward, the Salim Group should closely consider changes in the institutional environment of ASEAN countries, succession planning, and the centralization of control, as well as both the benefits and concerns associated with its Axis of Prosperity expansion. 1. History of the Salim Group The historical events of the Salim Group can be classified into three phases that the Indonesian conglomerate experienced. These phases are broadly grouped time periods that share characteristics and observe similar trends. We begin by examining the first phase of the Salim Group’s accomplished history, which includes the actions that led to the creation of the company and its earliest business activities. Prior to the Second World War, Liem Sioe Liong immigrated to Indonesia from China’s Fujian province. When Liem arrived in Central Java, there was already an existing and organized Chinese community. This is a direct reflection of the increase in Indonesia’s Chinese immigrant population, a group considered to be economically higher than the local Javanese as they were used by the colonists as intermediaries and traders. The importance of Liem’s ethnicity will be discussed in later sections. Liem began trading and lending in the early 1940’s before the Japanese occupation. Similar to many Chinese immigrants, Liem abandoned his Chinese name and adopted the Indonesian-sounding Sudono Salim, hereafter referred to as Sudono. Shortly after the Japanese occupation in 1942, Sudono engaged in Dangbangke trading, which consisted of smuggling small goods with bicycles. At the same time, Sudono started a family and fathered both Anthony Salim and Andre Halim, two sons that would eventually play a prominent role in the Salim Group. It is in the 1940’s that the Salim Group was founded; however, sources do not specify the exact commercial nature that Sudono pursued. After the Japanese occupation, Sudono actively supported the Indonesian Independence movement who were fighting the Dutch army. Sudono was part of the Futsing Hwee movement and helped hide revolutionary leader Hasan Din, the father-in-law of Sukarno, for over a year. This would prove to be an important connection for Sudono as the Indonesian nationalists won independence and enabled Sudono to resume trading commodities such as peanut oil, cloves, and coffee. Through his connection with Hasan Din, Sudono was labeled as a â€Å"trustworthy supplier of the military†. As a result, Sudono profited from helping the Indonesian army both during and after their independence movement (Dieleman, 2007b). Following independence, Sukarno took over Indonesia in 1957 and implemented a closed economic policy that rejected foreign capital and focused on creating a greater role for government nationalism (Dieleman, 2006). Although Sukarno’s policies attempted to favor indigenous businessmen with his Benteng program, Sudono and Indonesia’s Chinese minority economically dominated the country. Sudono moved his family to Jakarta where he would continue to supply the Indonesian army. In addition, Sudono develop several business partnerships outside of his family network with other Chinese immigrants. Dieleman points out that the Salim Group began to rapidly diversify because of Sudono’s belief that â€Å"all businesses are good† (Dieleman, 2007, p. ?). The group continued to develop textiles, became the army’s supplier of soap and purchased the Bank of Central Asia (BCA), which would grow to be Indonesia’s largest bank. The group’s â€Å"business ventures adapted to the unpredictable environment and grew by taking the opportunities as they came, without a focused business strategy† (Dieleman, 2007b). Here it can be seen that Sudono’s activities shifted from trading to manufacturing and financing. Indonesia’s political environment changed again as Suharto seized power from Sukarno in 1967. By this time, Sudono had already established large businesses and built up a powerful network of political elite. President Suharto’s New Order policy opened up private and foreign investment for many of Indonesia’s commercial industries. Sudono utilized his connections with Suharto to acquire licenses that gave him exclusive rights over certain strategic exports. In addition, Sudono kept close ties with the Indonesian Army, which was now the dominant political force. Suharto implemented policies aimed at rapid industrialization from 1970 onward that also promoted import substitution. As a result, the Salim Group expanded to include domestic flour milling, cement and automobile production. Each of these industries had established favourable conditions that encouraged domestic production through government programs. The Salim Group had companies in highly diverse sectors and profited from the wave of Indonesia’s industrialization (Dieleman, 2006). See figure 1 to see the Salim Group’s growth during Indonesia’s industrialization. 1. 2 Phase Two: Transition to the Second Generation The next phase of the Salim Group is distinguished from the previous period of unrelated diversification, a common characteristic of Chinese family businesses. In 1972, the Salim Group stopped randomly diversifying and Sudono’s strategy shifted by targeting select industries rather than being driven solely by opportunity (Dieleman, 2006). The purpose of this shift was to decrease the group’s dependency on government contacts and enable internalization. Dielmans highlights that overseas partners in Japan helped the Salim Group by providing both technology and knowledge to the company. This is likely a result of Akamatsu’s proposed flying geese strategy (Bu, 2012a). In addition, Anthony Salim and other family members joined the business in 1972 to help manage the sheer number and diversity of the companies that the Salim Group owned. However, most of Sudono’s business partners were Chinese immigrants, stemming from the bamboo network of overseas Chinese across Asia. The Salim Group continued to grow and engage in commercial activities on a much larger scale. This was aided by the government’s changing policy from import substitution to export led growth, following the pattern of many NIEs and other ASEAN governments. In addition, the Salim Group continued steady growth through the 1980’s and moved into more capital-intensive industries such as chemicals and steel-making. Sodono also recognized the risk of Indonesia’s political instability and intensified the group’s internationalization rate in the 1980’s and 1990’s, specifically in Singapore and Hong Kong. In 1982, Sodono founded First Pacific in Hong Kong, which was owned by the Salim’s and opearated businesses throughout Asia (Dieleman, 2007b). Refer to figure 2 to see a breakdown of the Salim Group’s internationalazation in the 1990’s. The result was an extremely diverse yet powerful family business that structured its business offerings across the value chain. Another major event in this phase of the Salim Group’s history was the changeover in leadership. Anthony Salim assumed control of the family company in 1993. The ever-expanding business required the help of professional managers, which Anthony continued to hire to help manage the Salim empire. By 1995, the Salim Group had become a giant, representing 5% of Indonesia’s total GDP, with revenues above 20 billion and 200,000 employees. Refer to figure 3 to see a snapshot of the Salim Group’s commercial activities in 1995. 1. 3 Phase Three: Financial Crisis and Reform The final phase of the Salim Group’s history begins with the Asian Financial Crisis of 1997 and continues to the present date. The Salim Group borrowed heavily from foreign banks to capitalize on superior lending rates, making them highly vulnerable to currency risk. As Indonesia’s currency rapidly devalued in 1997, the Salim Group was faced with increasing debt obligations. Refer to figure 4 for a breakdown on the corporate leverage of selected Asian economies and figure 5 for a breakdown of the growth of US, reflecting foreign, borowing for the Salim Group. The group’s pyramid ownership structure and internal lending compounded the situation as the largest Indonesian conglomerate’s debt-to-equity ratio skyrocketed. Even more concerning was the fall of Suharto, an important political connection that helped the Salim Group flourish under his corrupt ruling period (Dieleman, 2006) As a result of these factors, Anthony Salim was faced with tough decisions on honoring over $5 billion in loans. See figure 6 to see the impact of the Asian financial crisis on select economies. The Salim Group transferred 107 of their companies to the Indonesian government to settle their debt obligations. Many of these assets were ultimately bought back by the Salim Group at a discount, likely due to the corrupt Indonesian government. Since this period, the Salim Group has been on the road to recovery and has continued to experience growth by refocusing its portfolio while also internationalizing rapidly. See figure 7 to see how the group’s actions reflected Indonesia’s political and institutional environment and figure 8 for a complete summary of the Salim Group’s strategic actions. Using history as a basis of analysis, it is clear that the Salim Group exhibits many of the characteristics of a Chinese family business. These include centralized decision making through a dominant CEO, family ownership and control, the importance of external networks, and a high degree of strategic flexibility. The details and justifications for these characteristics are further developed in the following section of the report. Big whales swim in the deep sea, in the salt water, but we are talking fresh water here. † (Anthony Salim) The competitive environment of the Salim Group is as complex and opaque as the company itself. As the conglomerate operates in various and mostly unrelated business fields, it is not easy to determine its main competitors on an aggregate level. The second difficulty is the fact that these different operations are often spread amongst different countries in Southeast Asia. Although it is not possible to find a directly comparable conglomerate, operating in exactly the same businesses and geographical regions, it is possible to identify those whose main businesses overlap with the primary commercial activities of the Salim Group. In doing so, we found three major competitors: (1) multinational giants such as Unilever and General Electric1, (2) Indonesian conglomerates operating in similar sectors and (3) other large industry specific competitors, not necessarily conglomerates. While the first two have the potential to compete n a macro or group level, the third category of firms mainly competes in one specific business field. The American food company General Mills, for example, is a direct competitor of Indofood, but does not possess the potential to jeopardize the Salim Group as a whole. Please see figure 9 below for a peer group overview on a macro level. In summary, we find that although the group has competitors of similar and larger size, there is no competitor that could take complete market share from the Salim Group as a whole. This is primarily a result of the Salim Group’s high level of diversification. As the Salim Group operates across numerous business lines, even if one aspect of the business was facing tough competition or declining sales, the group as a whole is large enough to compensate for fluctuating financial performance. 3. Features 3. 1 Ownership and Organizational Structure Chinese family businesses (CFBs) are typically fully owned by the family members. Top-management positions are occupied exclusively by members of the core family and senior management positions are usually taken by other close relatives or long-term employees with proven loyalty. This context restricts quick promotions or the acquisition of professional management that distinguishes itself through high performance. Thus, growth is limited and the organization is maintained at a small scale. Another feature of the structure of CFBs is their aptitude for unrelated diversification in terms of products and geography, with an additional focus on short-term returns (Chen, 2004; Bu, 2012c). In contrast to these characteristics, Sudano Salim began to professionalize the group’s business while in charge. When Anthony took over, he hired even more professional managers that also had access to top management, organized the group into divisions and initiated IPOs to list companies on stock exchanges in Indonesia and abroad (Dieleman, 2007a, p. 22). The latter resulted in companies having to conform to transparency rules and to develop working organizational structures and controlling systems on the one hand, and provided access to foreign capital on the other hand. The inflow of foreign capital came along with a dilution of ownership.

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Baroque to the classical period’s music Essays

Baroque to the classical period’s music Essays Baroque to the classical period’s music Essay Baroque to the classical period’s music Essay Essay Topic: Classical Name: Course: Instructor: Date: Baroque to the classical period’s music Music is a form of art that allows one to express his or her emotions and ideas by moving ones body in rhythm. There are different types of music styles like Romantic music, Jazz music, baroque and classical, just but to mention a few. Music is also a form of art and culture that unites people from all lifestyles. Music brings about peace and harmony. It is fun when one is dancing to favorite tune. Music helps us connect with the universe. Baroque Music Baroque music is a music style that uses drama to convey its message. It existed from 1600 to 1750. Instruments used during the baroque era include, the violin, organ, harpsichord among others. One of its earliest composers was Johann Sebastian Bach. Born in 1685 and died in 1750. He started singing in his church choir when he was just a boy. His father taught him how to play instruments like the violin. When Johann grew into a more mature adult, he started composing his own music. He is well known for his passions like, St.Matthew passion, St.John passion and the St. Mark passion. Classical music Classical music is a form of instrumental music. It existed from 1750 to 1820. Classical music is played while sitting down on a stool. Some of the instruments used in classical music included the piano harpsichord and the organ. Different instruments were played at the same time. One of its earliest composers was Ludwig van Beethoven. He was born in 1770 and died in 1827. He used his imagination and composed great compositions despite the fact that he was deaf. His greatest compositions include the missa solemnis, violin concerto and the eroica. Romantic music Romantic music is a form of classical music style. It existed from 1790 to 1820. This music style uses lyrics and instruments to express emotions. Instruments used in romantic music are the same as those used in classical music. It involves slow body movement. One of the earliest composers of romantic music was Jean Sibelius who lived from 1865 to 1957. He was best known for his compositions like finlandia, the swan of tuonela and valse triste. Jean Sibelius loved the out doors. He got his inspiration to compose music from nature and beautiful art. Sometimes, he could express his emotions by drawing what he felt in his heart. He then found words to match his art. Later he would be recording his new song. Jazz music Jazz music style came about at the beginning of the 20th century. It brought the African and American music style together. By mixing up both music styles jazz music was born. It was known for its famous dance style, the swing. Instruments used while playing jazz music include, a guitar, drums, piano just but to name a few. A jazz musician could add a comic statement to his or her lyrics just to entertain the audience. One of the earliest composers of jazz music was Louis Armstrong. He lived from1900 to 1971. He started playing instruments at a very young age. His favorite was the trumpet. He was known for composing, what a wonderful world, hello dolly and west end blues. Some of these compositions are still played to this day. The composers may have died but their music still lives on. They are mostly remembered by the message in their songs. Their legacy still lives on. Music has been categorized as a form of communication. It understands different languages and cultures. Music is soothing. It is beautiful and artistic.

Friday, February 28, 2020


INTRODUCTION TO INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS GLOBAL MAKETING - Case Study Example This resulted into a provision of year round contributions of products, services, technology and resources in terms of finances. As opposed to the 1990’s broadcasting was significantly on the rise though the award of the same seemed complex. Never in the past had a single negotiation resulted into a multi-game broadcasting and though the percentages of Canada in terms of viewers decreased in 2006 as compared to 2002, was the overall success with regards to the same commendable. For the 2006 winter Olympics, there was a representation in terms of sponsorships in three main categories that is the main sponsors, official sponsors and official suppliers. Among the three levels The Torino Organizing Committee was able to get 57 companies and 63 brands a number which included 5 main sponsors and 17 official sponsors and number which were quite significant in the success of the Olympics (Glasurit set for 2006 Olympics. (Final Coat) (Brief Article). (2005, November 1). To realize this success the sponsors undertook huge investments. The investments by the sponsors through the Olympics of 1998, 2002 and 2006 in terms of partners increased from 26, 53 to 57 in 2006 while the revenue and support was $163 million, $494 million and $348 million in the last year due to minor challenges faced at that time(Elam and Curt). The ticket and licensing took a twist where over 540000 products were sold to commemorate the 2006 winter Olympics through 32 official licenses for 35 products groupings bringing revenue of $17 million which was way ahead by 10% above the set target. Among the licensed products involved a higher percentage of Torino 2006 brand images. Another success was witnessed in rising of the awareness of the Olympics. An increase of percentage from 87% in 2004 to 94% in 2006 of awareness was recorded and hence a boost in all the remaining aspects (Elam and Curt). 2. What worked well, and what did not? In terms of worldwide sponsorship as a longer term marketing p rogram aimed at promoting prolonged sponsorship of the Olympic Games, the 2006 winter Olympics which falls in the year category 2005-2008 recorded 12 TOP sponsors which became the sixth TOP cycle since the advent of the program hence we call it TOP VI (Elam and Curt). The future still needs to look for more sponsorship to strengthen the financial base of the organization. This will be realized through stronger legislations which direct the management of funds required for the same (Glasurit set for 2006 Olympics. (Final Coat) (Brief Article). (2005, November 1). Despite the fact that the 2006 Olympics was a success it is hard to say that it is the best Olympic so far witnessed as those for Lillehammer of 1994 and that for Salt Lake City of 2002 can still be ranked above them for the reasons of a few setbacks. This is despite the right things that happened of the sponsorships and the tickets sales and licensing acts which all lead to the creating of the independent of the IOC due to the increased revenue. The other partners like NOC and OCOG also benefitted from the money resources collected (Elam and Curt). There are though a few things which did not happen right and need to be corrected which include; the difficulty experienced in the comparison of the winter games. Such clarity must be distinguished so that monies such as those used for broadcasting and even other advertising can be rightly and transparently accounted for. Lack of such